Echinacea species have been widely used in traditional medicine. Nine species of Echinacea are native to the United States, but three perennial species are most commonly found in the commercial trade. These include E. angustifolia, which is found in eastern Montana as well as from Minnesota to Saskatchewan, south to Oklahoma and Texas; E. purpurea, from Georgia west to Oklahoma and north to Michigan and Ohio; and E. pallida, from Michigan to Nebraska, south to Georgia, and west to Texas (Foster, 1993).

Echinacea research at the Western Agricultural Research Center has included studies of plant density of Echinacea purpurea, seed germination of E. angustifolia, and the aster yellows phytoplasma disease of Echinacea.



Echinacea pallida

                                              Echinacea pallida


Additional Information about Echinacea

Books and Publications:

Foster, S. 1993. Herbal Renaissance. Gibbs-Smith Publishers, Salt Lake City, UT.

Li, T. 1998. Echinacea: Cultivation and medicinal value. HortTechnology 8:122-129.

Web Pages:

Adam, Katherine. 2000. ATTRA. Echinacea as an alternative crop.

Alberta Agriculture, Food, and Rural Development. 1999. Diseases of Echinacea on the Canadian Prairies.

Dey, D., S. Blade, M. Bandara, E. Russell, K. Piquette, D. Fleury, and D. Dyck. 2000. Commercial Echinacea. Alberta Agriculture, Food, and Rural Development.

Douglas, J. 1993. Echinacea - the purple coneflowers. New Zealand Crop and Food Research.

Little, R., 1999. Taming Echinacea angustifolia: research at SDSU and insights from a grower.

Howard, R., S-F. Hwang, and K-F. Chang. 1997. Yellows Diseases of Echinacea, Monarda and Caraway. Alberta Agriculture, Food, and Rural Development.

Sari, A.O., M.R. Morales, and J.E. Simon. 1999. Echinacea angustifolia: An Emerging Medicinal. p. 490–493. In: J. Janick (ed.), Perspectives on new crops and new uses. ASHS Press, Alexandria, VA.