Superintendent and Associate Professor, Ph.D.

Ph.D. 1989, Crop and Soil Science, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT. M.S. 1986, Technology and Human Affairs, Washington University, St. Louis, MO. 1984 M.S. 1984, Natural Resources, Ball State University, Muncie, IN. B.S. 1982, Biology, magna cum laude, Saint Meinrad College, Saint Meinrad, IN. 

My research program is applied and field oriented with a goal of diversifying the wheat-based cropping systems which have and continue to dominate dryland farming in central Montana and in much of the Great Plains region. My primary responsibility is to develop strategies for integrating non-cereal crops as grain/seed, forage, and cover crops, along with cereal crops in addition to wheat, into agroecosystems that provide long-term economic and environmental sustainability when adopted by Montana farmers and ranchers. Specifically, these emerging crop and integrated crop-livestock systems must improve crop water-use efficiencies, reduce soil nutrient leaching, effectively incorporate integrated pest management approaches, minimize/eliminate soil erosion and enhance soil quality while allowing farming to be done profitably. I welcome opportunities to collaborate with others who are dedicated to finding solutions to the problems faced by Montana farmers and those in similar eco-regions.


Publications (last five years):

Refereed Book Chapters and Proceedings

Briar, S.S., P.M. Carr, G.G. Gramig, F.D. Menalled, and P.R. Miller. 2016. Current status and soil biology impacts of organic conservation tillage in the U.S. Great Plains.  International seminar on emerging trends in organic farming and sustainable agriculture to be held on 29, 30 and 31 December 2016, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam, Kerala, India (Invited) In press

Refereed Journal articles

Bhowmik, A., A.M. Fortuna, L.J. Cihacek, S. Rahman, M.S. Borhan, and P.M. Carr.  Use of Laboratory Incubation Techniques to estimate greenhouse gas footprints from clean and no tillage in organic agroecosystems (in revision)


1. Meccage, E., P.M. Carr, M. Bourgault, K. McVay, and D. Boss. 2019. Potential of annual forages in the Northern Great Plains. Crop Soils 52:18-22. doi: 10.2134/cs2019.52.0101

2. Carr, P.M. 2017. Guest editorial: conservation tillage for organic farming.  Online.  Agriculture 7(3), 21; doi: 10.3390/agriculture7030021

3. Bhowmik, A., A. Fortuna, L.J. Cihacek, A.I. Bary, P.M. Carr, and C.G. Cogger.  2017. Potential carbon sequestration and nitrogen cycling in long term organic management systems.  Renew. Agric. And Food Sys. pp. 1-13. doi: 10.1017/S1742170516000429. 

4. Reeve, J.R., L.A. Hoagland, J.J. Villalba, P.M. Carr, A. Atucha, C. Cambardella, D.R. Davis, and K. Delate. 2016. Organic farming, soil health, and food quality: Considering possible linkages. Advances in Agron. 137:319-367. doi: 10.1016/bs.agron.2015/17.003

5. Carr. P.M., E. Brevik, R.D. Horsley, and G.B. Martin. 2015. Long-term no-tillage sequesters soil organic carbon in cool semi-arid regions Soil Horizons doi: 10.2136/sh15-07-0016.

6. Carr, P.M., G.B. Martin, R.D. Horsley, and M.R. Hochhalter. 2014. Barley cultivar performance following canola, corn, pea, and spring wheat. Crop Management 13 doi: 10.2134/CM-2014-0056-RS.

7. Carr, P.M., G.B. Martin, R.D. Horsley, and M.R. Hochhalter. 2014. Malt barley cultivar ranking under long-term tillage systems in a semiarid region. Agron. J. 106:2067–2074 doi:10.2134/agronj14.0316

8. Carr, P.M., R.D. Horsley, J.J. Gunderson, T.J. Winch, and G.B. Martin. 2013. Weed growth and crop performance following hairy vetch, rye, and wheat cover crops in a cool semiarid region. Organic Agric. 3(3): 149-161. doi:10.1007/s13165-013-0057-8

9. Carr, P.M., G.G. Gramig, and M.A. Liebig. 2013. Impacts of organic zero tillage systems on crops, weeds, and soil quality.  Online.  Sustainability 5: 3172-3201. (INVITED). doi: 10.3390/su5073172

10. Carr, P.M., R.L. Anderson, Y.F. Lawley, P.R. Miller, and S.F. Zwinger. 2012. Organic zero-till in the northern U.S. Great Plains region: Opportunities and obstacles. Renew. Agric. and Food Sys. 27:12-20. (INVITED)


Reviewed Abstracts (● invited symposia oral paper)

1. Carr, P.M., E.C. Brevik, R.D. Horsley, and G.B. Martin. 2016. Sequestration of Soil Organic Carbon by Long-Term No-Tillage in a Cool Semi-Arid Region. In Geophysical Research Abstracts Vol. 18, EGU2016-1297, Vienna, Austria.


Recent Grants

Montana State University


1. Soil acidity management of long-term no-fill fields in Montana to prevent crop failure.  R. Engel (PI), P.M. Carr (Co-PI), C. Jones (Co-PI), and S. Powell (Co-PI). $264,015
2. Montana Fertilizer Tax Committee. Relationship between fertility management and malt quality in low protein barley. J. Sherman (PI), P.M.Carr (Co-PI), and K. McVay (Co-PI). $30,000
3. The Montana Wheat and Barley Committee. Assessing agronomic practices to advance cereal production in Montana.  P.M. Carr (PI). $35,000
4. The Montana Wheat and Barley Committee. A stripper-header for use in low-disturbance, high-residue no-till farming systems. P.M. Carr (PI). $10,000
5. The Montana Wheat and Barley Committee. Using warm-season crops to enhance wheat-based cropping system resilience. P.M. Carr (PI) $14,846


1. The Montana Wheat and Barley Committee. Using Warm-Season Crops to Enhance Wheat-Based Cropping System Resilience. P.M. Carr (PI) and D. Wichman (Co-PI). $9658

2. Montana Fertilizer Advisory Committee. Understanding Acidity and Management of Montana Soils. R. Engel and P. M. Carr (coPI). $6570

North Dakota State University


1. North Dakota Department of Agriculture – Specialty Crop Block Grant Program. FUN: Using fungi and no-till to enhance organic vegetable production in North Dakota.  P.M. Carr (PI) and G. Gramig (Co-PI). $31,442


2. The CERES Trust Organic Research Initiative. Tillage and amf inoculant impacts on organic vegetable production in the upper Great Plains. G. Gramig (PI), and P.M. Carr (Co-PI). $179,821

3. USDA-NIFA OREI. Building research knowledge and community through an international organic agriculture conference. E. Mallory (PI), K. Delate, P. Carr, and J. Heckman (Co-PIs). $21,686


4. USDA-NIFA OREI. Targeted grazing as a keystone ecological process to reduce tillage intensity and terminate cover crops. Environmental, ecological, and economical assessment of reintegrating animal and crop production in dryland organic systems. F. Menalled (PI), P. Hatfield, P. Carr, P. Miller, D. Weaver, M. Burrows, R. Engel, A. Bekkerman, J. Boles, Z. Miller, R. Quinn, L. Burkle, K. O’Neill, G. Gramig, and K. Ringwall (Co-PIs). $1,499,815