Superintendent and Associate Professor, Ph.D.

Ph.D. 1989, Crop and Soil Science, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT. M.S. 1986, Technology and Human Affairs, Washington University, St. Louis, MO. 1984 M.S. 1984, Natural Resources, Ball State University, Muncie, IN. B.S. 1982, Biology, magna cum laude, Saint Meinrad College, Saint Meinrad, IN. 

My research program is applied and field oriented with a goal of diversifying the wheat-based cropping systems which have and continue to dominate dryland farming in central Montana and in much of the Great Plains region. My primary responsibility is to develop strategies for integrating non-cereal crops as grain/seed, forage, and cover crops, along with cereal crops in addition to wheat, into agroecosystems that provide long-term economic and environmental sustainability when adopted by Montana farmers and ranchers. Specifically, these emerging crop and integrated crop-livestock systems must improve crop water-use efficiencies, reduce soil nutrient leaching, effectively incorporate integrated pest management approaches, minimize/eliminate soil erosion and enhance soil quality while allowing farming to be done profitably. I welcome opportunities to collaborate with others who are dedicated to finding solutions to the problems faced by Montana farmers and those in similar eco-regions.


Grants and Contracts (Current)

1. Organic Farming Research Foundation. Evaluating the effects of seeding rates and inoculant performance on nodulation, weed suppression and relative yields of different lentil varieties grown in the northern Great Plains.  J. Eberly and P. Carr. $20,000

2. The Montana Wheat and Barley Committee. Improving nitrogen management in Montana dryland soils by determining the contribution of microbial mineralization to nitrogen availability. J. Eberly (PI), C. Jones, P. Carr, and S. Fordyce (Co-PIs). $65,513

3. Brewers Association. Winter and Spring 2-row Malt for Conventional and Organic Systems. J. Eberly (PI), P. Carr and J. Sherman (Co-PIs). $30,000

4. USDA-OREI. CREEP STOP: Integrating biological, cultural, and mechanical/physical tools for long-term suppression of creeping perennial weeds in northern Great Plains and Pacific Northwest cropping systems. P.M. Carr (PI) and 15 Co-PIs. $1,999,995

5. USDA-WSARE. Predicting overwinter nitrate-N changes at the subfield scale in leaching-susceptible agricultural soils. P.M. Carr (PI), S. Fordyce, C. Jones, J. Ebery, S. Ewing, and W.A. Sigler (Co-PIs). $25,000

6. USDA-NIFA CPPM. Integrating little hammers: crop variety, crop diversification, cover crops, and targeted grazing to chip away at multiple herbicide resistant weeds. T. Siepel (PI), A. Bekkerman, P. Carr, T. Murphy, E. Burns, and F.D. Menalled (Co-PIs). $199,997

7. USDA-WSARE. Soil acidity management of long-term no-fill fields in Montana to prevent crop failure. R. Engel (PI), P.M. Carr, C. Jones, and S. Powell (Co-PIs). $264,015

Publications (last three years)

Journal Articles

1. Carr, P. M., M. A. Cavigelli, H. Darby, K. Delate, J. O. Eberly, G. G. Gramig, J. R. Heckman, E. B. Mallory, J. R. Reeve, E. M. Silva, D. H. Suchoff, and A. L. Woodley. 2019. Nutrient Cycling in Organic Field Crops in Canada and the United States. Agron. J. 0. doi:10.2134/agronj2019.04.027

2. Burkhardt, A., S. Briar, J.M. Martin, P.M. Carr, J. Lachowiec, C. Zabinski, D.W. Roberts, P. Miller, and J. Sherman. 2019. Perennial crop legacy effects on nematode community structure in semi-arid wheat-pea systems. Applied Soil Ecology 136:93-100.

3. Fordyce, S., J. Torrion, J. Lachowiec, P. Miller, B. Biddulph, and P. Carr. 2018. Field evidence for frost-induced cross-stress tolerance in canola. Online. Agricultural and Environmental Letters doi:10.2134/ael2018.05.0020.

4. Bhowmik, A., A.M. Fortuna, L.J. Cihacek, S. Rahman, M.S. Borhan, and P.M. Carr. 2017. Use of Laboratory Incubation Techniques to estimate greenhouse gas footprints from clean and no tillage in organic agroecosystems. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 112:204-215.

5. Carr, P.M. 2017. Guest editorial: conservation tillage for organic farming. Online. Agriculture 7(3): 19 doi:10.3390/agriculture7030021.

6. Bhowmik, A., A. Fortuna, L.J. Cihacek, A.I. Bary, P.M. Carr, and C.G. Cogger. 2017. Potential carbon sequestration and nitrogen cycling in long term organic management systems. Online. Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems pp. 1–13. doi: 10.1017/S1742170516000429.

Book Chapters and Proceedings

S.S. Briar, P.M. Carr*, G.G. Gramig, F.D. Menalled, and P.R. Miller. 2019. Current status and soil biology impacts of organic conservation tillage in the U.S. Great Plains. In C. Sarath Chandran, S. Thomas, and M.R. Unni (ed.) Organic Farming: New Advances Towards Sustainable Agricultural Systems, Springer International Publishing AG. Chapter 13 ISBN 978-3-030-04656-9

Reviewed Extension Circulars

Meccage-Glunk, E., P.M. Carr, M. Bourgault, K. McVay, and D. Boss. 2019. Annual forages. Crops and Soils 52:18-22. doi:10.2134/cs2019.52.0101


1. Carr, P.M., D.L. Boss, M. Bourgault, J.O. Eberly. K.A. McVay, and P.R. Miller. 2018. The potential of annual forages to achieve dryland cropping systems sustainability. Proceedings of the American Society of Agronomy Annual Meeting, 4-7 November, Baltimore, MD. 131-10.

2. Burkhart, A., S. Briar, P.M. Carr, J.M. Martin, and J. Sherman. 2018. Using soil nematode community structure to make soil health associations in semi-arid dryland barley systems. Proceedings of the American Society of Agronomy Annual Meeting, 4-7 November, Baltimore, MD. 224-10. 2nd place graduate student competition

3. Carr, P.M., S. Fordyce, and S. Dahlhausen. 2017. Warm season crop choices in the northern Great Plains. Proceedings of the American Society of Agronomy Annual Meeting, 22-25 October, Tampa, FL. 97-4.

4. McVay, K.A., D.N. Boss, P.F. Lamb, Q.A. Khan, C. Chen, P.M. Carr, J.A Torrion, Z. Miller, S. Fordyce, J.M. Dafoe, and R. Hybner. 2017. Evaluation of multiple species for use as cover crops in dryland production in Montana. Proceedings of the American Society of Agronomy Annual Meeting, 22-25 October, Tampa, FL. 147-1540.

5. K.P. Beamer, G.G. Gramig, and P.M. Carr. 2017. Weed management and soil quality outcomes of non-chemical weed control tactics. Proceedings of the American Society of Agronomy Annual Meeting, 22-25 October, Tampa, FL. 246-4.

6. Hogstad, S.K., G.G. Gramig, and P.M. Carr. 2017. Weed communities shift in response to organic no-till integrated with grazing. Weed Science Society of America Annual Meeting, 6-9 March, Tucson, AZ. 57:143.