The cultivated apple (Malus domestica) is believed to have originated in Central Asia from wild apples which cross-pollinated resulting in cousins of today's edible apples.  A genetically diverse species there were once around 10,000 cultivars of domestic apples though many have been lost and few are grown today for commercial markets.  Related to pears and quince among other pome fruits, apples are often cold hardy and able to stand up against cold Montana winters.

WARC Apple Research

WARC has a long history of apple research starting with its founding in 1907. Today, research focuses on assisting Montana growers to identify new cultivars for cider markets, determining orchard management practices suited to Montana's growing conditions, and helping growers anticipate adapting to a changing climate. Whether an orchard is focused on the fresh market or value-added products, WARC's research centers on helping growers deliver high quality fruit to local markets.


Training systems for hard cider production

Cider apple cultivars for the Intermountain West

Apple rootstock trial

Cultivar-Specific Bloom Timing and Fruit Maturity

Fruit tree phenology

Relative apple fruit maturity

2019 apple fruit maturity at WARC, Corvallis, Montana

2020 apple maturity across Montana

Pest & Weed Management

TRAPs - Temperature Resource and Alert for Pests

Grazing Livestock in Orchards: Assessing Risks for Food Safety

Bagging apple fruit for codling moth control

2019 - 2020 Montana apple codling moth surveys

Other Research

MSU Extension Fruit Research Sites

Apple Research Overview Video

Additional Apple Grower Resources

Growing Apples in Montana: An online guide to establishing, managing and profiting from apple production in Montana